Making Better Software for EVERYONE

What is Accessibility?

If you google for the word, you will get some definitions:

Accessibility is is also known as assistive technology. Even spectacles, pill organizers are great examples of assistive products.

 not just those with a 

WCAG 2.0

The W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) is an international community that develop Web standards. The W3C, in cooperation with individuals and organizations around the world, they developed the

WCAG 2.0 (Web Content Accessibility Guidelines).

It is a standard with 3 levels of conformance (A, AA, & AAA).

WCAG 2.0 Level A is the minimal compliance

Some notable WCAG 2.0 Level A requirements include:

No keyboard traps
Navigable with a keyboard
Non-text content alternatives
Meaning is not conveyed through shape, size, color etc. alone
Clearly identified input errors
Language of Page is set

WCAG 2.0 Level AA is the acceptable compliance

requirements include:

Color contrast is, in most instances, at least 4.5:1
Alt text or a similar solution is used for images that convey meaning
Navigation elements are consistent throughout the site
Form fields have accurate labels
Status updates can be conveyed through a screen reader
Headings are used in logical order

WCAG 2.0 Level AAA is the optimal compliance

requirements include:

Sign language interpretation for audio or video content
Color contrast is at least 7:1 in most instances
Timing is not an essential part of any activity
Context-sensitive help is available

How to test Accessibility

Manual accessibility testing

There are some browser plugins available already that can help us. To name a few: AXE, Lighthouse, Wave, SiteImprove, Accessibility Insights for Web. These are the ones I have tried. In the end I decided to go with AXE.

Once it’s added to the browser it becomes available in the Developer Toolbar.

Once a page is analysed we not only get a list of errors but explanations and guidelines on fix too. The issue description also tells us which WCAG level contains that requirement.

Shift-left on accessibility testing

Using a checklist could help in building accessibility in. Having accessibility built in gives us many benefits. During the planning period it would worth to ask some questions, that also could be added to a checklist later on.

What to consider during the planning?

– Plan for content to be viewed in both portrait and landscape orientations
– Define the background color or color on a specified element
– Suggest fixes for user and input errors
– Support multiple languages
– Search bars to suggest common keyword phrases
– Provide a way for additional instructions and information to be displayed

… what else to add to the checklist? Please, share your thoughts!

Can accessibility testing be automated?


I have been playing around with Cypress and Axe library. Axe-core supports checks against WCAG 2.1, WCAG 2.0 and Section 508 accessibility standards.

Installing cypress-axe

npm i -D cypress-axe
npm i -D cypress axe-core

Available cypress-axe functions:


The different standards that we can check against – from the axe-core documentation:

wcag2aWCAG 2.0 Level A
wcag2aaWCAG 2.0 Level AA
wcag21aWCAG 2.1 Level A
wcag21aaWCAG 2.1 Level AA
best-practiceCommon accessibility best practices
wcag***WCAG success criterion e.g. wcag111 maps to SC 1.1.1
ACTW3C approved Accessibility Conformance Testing rules
section508Old Section 508 rules
section508.*.*Requirement in old Section 508

This injects the axe-core runtime into the page under test. You must run this after a call to cy.visit() and before you run the checkA11y(). You may also call this either in your test, or in a beforeEach, as long as the visit comes first.

In the code it may look like this:

Which will be used by cy.checka11y().


This will run axe against the document at the point in which it is called with the preferred options.

Other resources

To educate yourself more on the topic you should visit these sites:


W3C Web Accessibility Initiative (W3C WAI)


If you have other useful resources, share them in the comment section 🙂

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